A Reexamination and Critique of Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems Theory: A Contemporary Critique and New Theories for Assessing the Black Male Experience

Race to the Top (RttT) is a federal program designed to promote competition between states to reform and innovate K-12 education programs; states that make substantial progress in raising standards receive Federal Government grant money. To many scholars and practitioners, the limitations of George W. Bush’s No Child Left Behind necessitated RttT, and this new initiative has been valued for revolutionizing the reform efforts of K-12 schools across the nation.